In New York State, a child is entitled to be supported by his or her parents until the age of 21. However, if the child is under 21 years of age, and is married, or self-supporting, or in the military, the child is considered to be “emancipated” and the parents’ support obligation ends.
A child may also be considered “emancipated” if he or she is between 17 and 21, leaves the parents’ home and refuses to obey the parents’ reasonable commands.
When parents live separately and one parent has custody of the child, that parent, called the “custodial parent”, may file a petition in Family Court asking the court to enter an order for the “non-custodial parent” to pay child support.
A child who is not emancipated and is living away from both parents may file a petition against his or her parents asking for an order of support to be paid to the child.
When a child is receiving public assistance benefits, or is living in a foster home and receiving foster care benefits, the Department of Social Services may file a petition against the non-custodial parent or parents asking that the court enter an order for child support to be paid to the government agency while it continues to pay benefits for the child.
The party filing the petition is called the “petitioner” and the party from whom support is sought is the “respondent”. The petition must be served upon (delivered to) the respondent, together with a summons indicating the date of the court hearing.
There are no filing fees in Family Court.
The parties may hire lawyers to represent them or may speak for themselves without a lawyer. If the parent who is being asked to pay support is a W-2 wage earner and earns only a modest salary, a party may decide to proceed to trial without an attorney. If the parent being sued for support earns a substantial salary, or is self-employed, we recommend that an attorney experienced in handling these types of cases be hired. Our firm has over 30 years of experience handling child support cases involving substantial income and self-employed parents. Even if you are unsure about whether to hire an attorney to represent you in Staten Island Family Court, why not protect yourself by making an appointment for a confidential 30 minute consultation with an experienced Family Court attorney at our law firm – the cost is only $150. The full amount of this fee will be credited on your first months invoice if you choose to retain our firm.
Where a party cannot afford to hire one, the court will assign a lawyer at no cost, only when it is alleged that there has been a violation of the order and a party is in danger of going to jail.
The parties must provide copies of their most recently filed tax returns, some recent pay stubs, and a completed financial disclosure statement showing their earnings and expenses. The parties should also bring to court proof of their expenses, such as rent, food, clothing, medical costs, child care, education and the cost of supporting other children.
A “Support Magistrate” conducts the hearing, taking testimony from both sides concerning their income and expenses and the cost of supporting the child. The parties can present evidence and witnesses and cross-examine each other and the witnesses. The Support Magistrate calculates how much support the non-custodial parent must pay to the parent with custody, and sets a schedule for regular payments. Payments may be paid directly to the petitioner or through the Support Collections Unit (“SCU”). SCU, which is not part of the court, will then send the money to the petitioner.
Both parties have the right to appeal the order by filing an “objection” within 30 days of the date the order is sent to them. The objection must be filed with the court clerk’s office, with a copy sent to the other party. The other party may send a reply to the court. After reviewing the case file, a judge then rules on the objection. The judge may leave the order as it is, change it, or send the case back to the Support Magistrate for further proceedings. If either party disagrees with the judge’s decision, the case may be appealed to a higher court.
The petitioner may file a “violation petition” asking the court to take action against a respondent who fails to pay a support order. The petition must be served upon (delivered to) the respondent. A hearing is then held to decide whether the respondent has violated the court’s order. The Support Magistrate may enforce the order by directing SCU to take the payments directly from the respondent’s paycheck, order the respondent to pay a lump sum toward back monies owed, or take other steps to collect the money owed.
A respondent who falls behind in payments also risks having his or her driver’s license or professional and business licenses suspended, bank accounts seized, passport revoked, and tax refunds intercepted.
If the respondent is found to have willfully and voluntarily failed to pay a child support order, he or she may be jailed for up to six months, for contempt of court.
If there is a change in circumstances, either party has the right to file a petition to modify the order. The party seeking a change in the order must file a modification petition containing a statement explaining the change. The petition and a summons must be served upon (delivered to) the other party. The court then holds a hearing to consider changing the order.
Orders paid through the Support Collections Unit will be reviewed automatically every three years for possible “adjustment” (change), upon request of either party, and in all cases where the person with custody of the child receives public assistance for the child. The parties are notified of their right to request that SCU review the order, and, following the review, are each notified of the possible change in the order. If they disagree with the proposed new order, they may request a hearing before a Support Magistrate, and a new Support order will be established.
What If a Custodial Parent Is Seeking Support from a Parent Who Lives Outside of New York State, or in a County in New York State That Is Far from the Child’s Home County?
If the custodial parent lives in one state and seeks support from the other parent who lives outside of that state, an inter-state case may be filed in the Family Court, under the Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA). A UIFSA case may also be filed in Family Court when the parents reside in two different counties within New York State which are not located next to one another. A New York City petitioner may file the case in the Family Court in his or her home county, and the petition will be sent to the court in the respondent’s state or county. The respondent is then served with the petition and appears in court in his or her home state or county. The petitioner is not required to appear in the other court where the respondent lives. A local city or county attorney will appear there to represent the petitioner at the support hearing.
If the child resides outside of New York State, or in a county far from New York City, and the respondent lives in New York City, the custodial parent may file a petition in his or her home state or home county. The respondent will be served and be required to appear in the Family Court in his home county, while a lawyer from the New York City Law Department represents the out-of-state or out-of-county petitioner.
The hearing is held in the same manner as a support case filed within New York City, but documents and evidence are exchanged through the mail or by fax.
In New York State, a married person may file a petition in Family Court seeking spousal support from a current husband or wife. While a divorced person may not seek a new order of support from an ex-spouse in Family Court (that would be done in the state Supreme Court), a petition may be filed seeking to modify an already existing order for an ex-spouse.
The petition and summons must be served upon (delivered to) the respondent. A hearing is then held before a Support Magistrate, where the parties must present evidence of their income and expenses, and may present witnesses to testify. The Support Magistrate decides whether to order the respondent to pay spousal support for the petitioner and, if so, how much and for how long a period of time.
Even if you are unsure about whether to hire an attorney to represent you in Staten Island Family Court, why not protect yourself by making an appointment for a confidential 30 minute consultation with an experienced Family Court attorney at our law firm – the cost is only $150!